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YUV

The YUV model defines a color space in terms of one luma and two chrominance components. YUV is used in the PAL and NTSC systems of television broadcasting, which are the standards in much of the world.
YUV models human perception of color more closely than the standard RGB model used in computer graphics hardware, but not as closely as the HSL color space and HSV color space.

Y stands for the luma component (the brightness) and U and V are the chrominance (color) components.
YUV signals are created from an original RGB (red, green and blue) source. The weighted values of R, G and B are added together to produce a single Y signal, representing the overall brightness, or luma, of that spot. The U signal is then created by subtracting the Y from the blue signal of the original RGB, and then scaling; and V by subtracting the Y from the red, and then scaling by a different factor.

An advantage of YUV is that some of the information can be discarded in order to reduce bandwidth. The human eye has fairly little color sensitivity: the accuracy of the brightness information of the luma channel has far more impact on the image discerned than that of the other two. 

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